Nordhausen is a city of about 45,000 people at the southern border of the Harz mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Nordhausen. It was once known for its tobacco industry, and is still known for its eponymous brandy, Nordhäuser Doppelkorn.
The city is first attested in a 13 May 927 document of Henry the Fowler, but an earlier settlement on the site dates back to around 785. In 1220, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor made it an Imperial Free City, and in 1430 Nordhausen joined the Hanseatic League. From around 1500 the city began producing brandy, which became famous under the name Nordhäuser Doppelkorn. In 1523, a year in which Thomas Müntzer spent some time in the city, the Reformation came to Nordhausen.
In 1866 the railway connected Nordhausen to Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.
On 3rd and 4th April 1945 three-quarters of the town was destroyed by bombing raids of the Royal Air Force, in which around 8,800 people died. On 11 April the Americans occupied the city, and on 2 July the Red Army took over. It has since been rebuilt, and, primarily since German reunification, had its ancient city center restored.